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Author Topic: The slightly less well known  (Read 85192 times)

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Offline Angry Turnip

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #600 on: September 14, 2020, 06:37:52 PM »
Bristol Jupiter Fighter / Type 89 Trainer

The Bristol Aeroplane Company authorised the conversion of three war-surplus F.2 airframes to use the Jupiter engine, to create the Type 76 Jupiter Fighter, which it was also hoped to sell as a fighter to foreign air forces.

The first of these three aircraft flew in June 1923. While the engine installation proved satisfactory, as the Type 76 had the same fuel capacity as the F.2, the increased fuel consumption of the Jupiter compared with the F.2's original Rolls-Royce Falcon meant that the aircraft had inadequate range for use as a fighter ,also the slipstream over the observer's cockpit meant that the observer could not use his .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun. Because of these flaws, no more Type 76s were built after the initial three.

While unsuitable as a fighter, the success of the engine installation resulted in the decision to produce an advanced trainer version, to supplement the Siddeley Puma-engined Bristol Tourers already in use in this role. The result of this combination was the Type 89 Trainer, a total of 23 of which were produced.
The Jupiter-powered advanced trainers entered service with the Bristol-operated Reserve Flying School at Filton in 1924. They were also used by the Reserve Flying School operated by William Beardmore and Company, with the Beardmore-owned aircraft being powered by Jupiter VI engines, while the Filton-based aircraft were powered by surplus Jupiter IV engines, as an economy measure. They remained in use at Renfrew until 1928, and at Filton until 1933, when they were replaced by Hawker Hart trainers and scrapped.
« Last Edit: September 14, 2020, 06:38:13 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #601 on: September 15, 2020, 03:41:24 PM »
Bristol Berkeley

The Bristol Berkeley was a government a single-engine day or night bomber from the mid 1920`s.

It was a fabric-covered all-metal structured three-bay biplane, with equal span, unswept and unstaggered wings with Frise-type ailerons on the upper and lower planes. Structurally, the wings were of rolled steel and duralumin.The fuselage was built from steel tubes and had a rectangular cross section. The pilot sat forward of the leading edge of the wing in an open cockpit and the gunner/observer in a cockpit further back, fitted with a ring-mounted .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis Gun. He could also access a bomb aimer's position,by laying on the aircraft floor.

The 650 hp Condor engine drove a two-blade propeller and had, after some Air Ministry input, a nose-mounted radiator under the propeller shaft. The Ministry advised that the wings of the first two Berkeleys of the three specified in the contract should have wooden wings for speed of completion, with the third to be all metal. Leitner-Watts Metal airscrews were required for the second and third machine. The first Berkeley flew on 5 March 1925.

The second Berkeley was accepted by the Air Ministry in December 1925 and the all-metal third one in the following June. All three went to the (RAE) for testing flights. The second aircraft undertook comparative trials of a four-blade wooden airscrew against its original two-blade steel one. One of the three Berkeleys was still flying with the RAE at the end of 1930.
« Last Edit: September 15, 2020, 03:46:37 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #602 on: September 15, 2020, 04:01:16 PM »
Bristol Buckingham

The Bristol Type 163 Buckingham was a World War II medium bomber for the RAF.

The Beaumont was based on the rear fuselage and tail of a Beaufighter, with a new centre and front fuselage. The armament was a mid-upper turret with four machine guns, four more machine guns firing forward and two firing to the rear.Construction began in late 1940, changes in the requirements,meant the Beaumont would no longer be suitable. The changes in performance meant a redesign by Bristol to use the 2520 hp Bristol Centaurus engine.

The Bristol redesign with a larger wing and the more powerful engines was the Type 163 Buckingham.It had gun installations in the nose, dorsal and ventral turrets. Generally conventional in appearance, one unusual feature was that the bomb-aimer/navigator was housed in a mid-fuselage ventral gondola which had a hydraulically powered turret with two 0.303 Browning machine guns. The Bristol-designed dorsal turret carried four Brownings. A further four fixed, forward-firing Brownings were controlled by the pilot.The first flight took place on 4 February 1943.During testing, the Buckingham exhibited poor stability which led to the enlargement of the twin fins, along with other modifications.

The Buckingham was not considered suitable for unescorted daytime use over Europe and in January 1944, it was decided that all Buckinghams would be sent overseas to replace Vickers Wellingtons.Once the Buckingham's handling problems were revealed, it was realised that the type was of little use. As a result, it was cancelled in August 1944.but to keep the Bristol workforce together, for later production of other types, a batch of 119 were built. Uses for the aircraft were sought and a conversion to a communications aircraft was devised.

After the first 54 had been built as bombers, the remainder were converted for duties with RAF Transport Command. The gun installations were removed and four seats and windows fitted in the fuselage. The aircraft was named Buckingham C.1. Despite its 300 mph speed and superior range to the Mosquito transports, with room for only four passengers, the Buckingham was rarely put to use.A total of 65 Buckingham bombers were unfinished on the production line and ended up being rebuilt as the Buckmaster, a trainer for the similar Brigand.Considered the "highest performance trainer in the RAF," the Buckmaster continued to serve as a trainer until its eventual retirement in the mid-1950s.
« Last Edit: September 15, 2020, 04:01:45 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #603 on: September 17, 2020, 10:59:16 PM »
Bristol Buckmaster

The Bristol Buckmaster was an advanced training aircraft from the mid 1940`s.

The Buckmaster was a propeller-driven, twin-engine mid-wing aircraft. The retractable undercarriage was of conventional (tailwheel) configuration. The radial engines were equipped with four-blade propellers.It was powered by a pair of Bristol Centaurus 57 eighteen-cylinder air-cooled radial engines, of 2,585 hp each.

A total of 65 Buckingham bombers were unfinished on the production line and ended up being rebuilt as the Buckmaster, to add the production series. All were intended to serve as a trainer for the similar Brigand. Blind flying instruction and instrument training could be undertaken, the normal crew complement being pilot, instructor and air signaller. The last Training Command Buckmasters served with the No. 238 OCU at Colerne into the mid-fifties; the transfer of one or two to Filton for experimental work marked its retirement in the mid-1950s.
« Last Edit: September 17, 2020, 11:00:23 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #604 on: September 17, 2020, 11:13:37 PM »
Bristol Superfreighter

The Bristol Type 170 Superfreighter Mk 32 was a larger, stretched version of the Bristol Freighter.

The first Superfreighters, with a longer - 42 ft 3 in - hold than the earlier Mark 31, were delivered to Silver City Airways in spring 1953 and were used on cross-channel services to Europe. One example was converted to a 60-seat all-passenger "Super Wayfarer".The Mark 32 could carry 20 passengers instead of 12 in the smaller Mark 31 Freighter, and three cars instead of two in its air ferry role.

The Superfreighter was distinguishable from the earlier Freighter by having a longer nose, in which the extra car was carried, and a fin fillet as well as rounded wingtips.
Power was a pair of Bristol Hercules 734 14-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engines, 2,000 hp each, which gave a max speed of 225mph but a more usual cruise of 165 mph.
« Last Edit: September 17, 2020, 11:13:58 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #605 on: September 19, 2020, 04:15:00 PM »
Bristol Bombay

The Bristol Bombay was a troop transport aircraft adaptable for use as a medium bomber from late 1930`s.

The aircraft was required to be capable of carrying 24 troops or an equivalent load of cargo as a transport, while carrying bombs and defensive guns for use as a bomber. This dual-purpose design concept was common to British pre-war designs.
It was a high-wing cantilever monoplane of all-metal construction.The wing design had a stressed metal skin rivetted to an internal framework consisting of multiple spars and ribs.This was the basis of the Bombay's wing, which had seven spars, with high-tensile steel flanges.The aircraft had a twin-tail and a fixed tailwheel undercarriage.The aircraft's crew consisted of a pilot, who sat in an enclosed cockpit, a navigator/bomb-aimer, whose working position was in the nose, and a radio-operator/gunner, who divided his time between the radio operator's position behind the cockpit and a gun turret in the nose. When the aircraft was operated as a bomber, an additional gunner was carried to man the tail gun position.

A prototype Type 130 was ordered in March 1933 and first flew on 23 June 1935,powered by two 750 hp Bristol Pegasus III radial engines driving two-bladed propellers. Testing was successful and an order for 80 was placed as the Bombay in July 1937.These differed from the prototype in having more powerful 1,010 hp engines driving three-bladed Rotol variable-pitch propellers, and discarded the wheel spats fitted to the undercarriage. Production aircraft were built by Short & Harland of Belfast,however the complex nature of the Bombay's wing delayed production, with the first Bombay not being delivered until 1939 and the last 30 being cancelled.

The first production Bombay flew in March 1939, with deliveries to No. 216 Squadron RAF based in Egypt beginning in September that year.Although it was outclassed as a bomber for the European theatre, it saw some service ferrying supplies to the BEF in France in 1940.The Bombay's main service was in the Middle East, with 216 Squadron, which operated most of the Bombays built at some stage.Bombays evacuated over 2,000 wounded during the Sicily campaign in 1943, and one crew was credited with carrying 6,000 casualties from Sicily and Italy before the type was finally withdrawn from use in 1944.
« Last Edit: September 19, 2020, 04:15:28 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #606 on: September 19, 2020, 04:27:35 PM »
Bristol Type 146

The Bristol Type 146 was a British single-seat, eight-gun fighter monoplane prototype from 1938.

The Bristol 146 was built to an Air Ministry order for a prototype single-seat eight-gun fighter meeting a specification issued in 1934. It called for an air-cooled engine for overseas use.The Type 146 was a low-wing cantilever monoplane with tapering wings of moderate dihedral on the outer sections. The wings were stress skinned with aluminium with only the ailerons and tail control surfaces fabric-covered. The two sets of four .303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns were housed in the outer wing sections.

The undercarriage was mounted halfway along the centre section and retracted cleanly inwards into the wing; the tailwheel was also fully retractable. The fuselage was a monocoque structure and the cockpit was enclosed with a one-piece sliding canopy.It was intended to be powered by a supercharged Bristol Perseus sleeve valve radial engine, but this was not ready and the older, lower-horsepower 840hp Mercury IX was used instead.

The Type 146 flew for the first time on 11 February 1938.Though the aircraft met the specification, neither it nor any of the other competing designs was taken into production. The RAF believed that the future of British fighter design was with the emerging Rolls-Royce Merlin-engined aircraft which had more power and cleaner aerodynamics. The second Type 146 prototype was cancelled, while K5119 continued to fly.It was the last single-engined fighter to be built by Bristol.
« Last Edit: September 19, 2020, 04:27:57 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #607 on: September 19, 2020, 04:48:24 PM »
Bristol 188

The Bristol 188 was a supersonic research aircraft built in the 1950s.

Bristol gave the project the type number 188, of which three aircraft were to be built, one a pure test bed and the other two (constructor numbers 13518 and 13519) for flight testing.Serial numbers XF923 and XF926 were given on 4 January 1954 to the two that would fly. To support the development of the Avro 730 Mach 3 reconnaissance bomber, another three aircraft were ordered (Serial Numbers XK429, XK434 and XK436). The follow-up order was cancelled when the Avro 730 programme was cancelled in 1957 as part of that year's review of defence spending. The 188 project was continued as a high speed research aircraft.

The advanced nature of the aircraft meant that new construction methods had to be developed. Several materials were considered for construction and two specialist grades of steel were selected: a titanium-stabilized 18-8 austenitic steel and a 12%-Cr steel used in gas turbines. These had to be manufactured to better tolerances in sufficient quantities for construction to start. The 12% chromium stainless steel with a honeycomb centre was used for the construction of the outer skin, to which no paint was applied.

The specification required engine installations which permitted the fitting of different air intakes, engines and propelling nozzles.The 188 was intended to have Avon engines but the half ton lighter each Gyron Junior was substituted in June 1957, meaning the engines were mounted further forward with longer nacelles and jet pipes.
The Gyron Junior was under development for the Saunders-Roe SR.177 supersonic interceptor and incorporated a fully variable reheat, from idle to full power, the first such application used in an aircraft.This choice of powerplant resulted in the 188 having a typical endurance of only 25 minutes, not long enough for the high-speed tests required.

In May 1960, the first airframe was delivered to the RAE at Farnborough for structural tests loading tests both heated and unheated before moving on to RAE Bedford. XF923 undertook the first taxiing trials on 26 April 1961, although due to problems encountered, the first flight was not until 14 April 1962. XF923 was intended to remain with Bristol for its initial flights and evaluation before turning it over to the MoA. XF926 had its first flight, using XF923s engines, on 26 April 1963. XF926 was given over to RAE Bedford for its flying programme. Over 51 flights, it managed a top speed of Mach 1.88 (1,440 mph at 36,000 ft (11,000 m). The longest subsonic Bristol 188 flight was only 48 minutes in length, requiring 70% of the fuel load to be expended to attain its operational altitude.

The project suffered a number of problems, the main being that the fuel consumption of the engines did not allow the aircraft to fly at high speeds long enough to evaluate the heating of the airframe, which was one of the main research areas it was built to investigate. Combined with fuel leaks, the inability to reach its design speed of Mach 2 and a takeoff speed at nearly 300 mph, the test phase was severely compromised.
The announcement that all development was terminated was made in 1964, the last flight of XF926 taking place on 12 January 1964. In total the project cost 20 million. By the end of the programme, considered the most expensive to date for a research aircraft in Great Britain, each aircraft had to be "cannibalised" in order to keep the designated airframe ready for flight.
XF926 was dismantled and moved to RAF Cosford (without its engines) to act as instructional airframe 8368M, and is preserved at the RAF Museum Cosford.
« Last Edit: September 19, 2020, 04:49:31 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #608 on: September 20, 2020, 11:54:17 PM »
Bristol Belvedere

The Bristol Type 192 Belvedere is a twin-engine, tandem rotor military helicopter from the late 1950`s.

The Belvedere was based on the Bristol Type 173 10-seat (later 16-seat) civilian helicopter which first flew on 3 January 1952. The 173 project was cancelled in 1956 and Bristol spent time on the Type 191,the RAF expressed an interest in the aircraft and the Type 192 "Belvedere" was created. Three Type 191 airframes were almost complete when the order was cancelled, but they were used to aid the development of the Type 192. The first two were used as test rigs for the new Napier Gazelle engines and the third was used for fatigue tests.

The first Type 192 prototype XG447 flew on 5 July 1958 with tandem wooden rotor blades, a completely manual control system and a castored, fixed quadricycle undercarriage. From the fifth prototype, the rotors fitted were all-metal, four-bladed units. Production model controls and instruments allowed night operations. The prototype machines had an upwards-hinged main passenger and cockpit door, which was prone to being slammed shut by the downwash from the rotors,which was replaced by a sliding door on later aircraft.

26 Belvederes were built, entering service as the Belvedere HC Mark 1. The Belvederes were originally designed for use with the Royal Navy but were later adapted to carry 18 fully equipped troops with a total load capacity of 6,000 lb (2,700 kg). The rotors were synchronised through a shaft to prevent blade collision, allowing the aircraft to operate through only one engine in the event of an emergency. In that case, the remaining engine would automatically run up to double power to compensate.

In June 1960 the fifth prototype, XG452 set a speed record of 130 mph between Gatwick and Tripoli. In 1962 a 72 Squadron Belvedere lowered the 80 ft tall spire onto the new Coventry Cathedral.
The type was deployed to 72 Squadron in 1961 and 26 Squadron in 1962, all at RAF Odiham.The helicopters were transferred by HMS Albion to Singapore to join 66 Squadron until the squadron was disbanded in 1969. 72 Squadron kept its Belvederes until August 1964 when it exchanged them for Westland Wessex`s.
It was operated by the RAF from 1961 to 1969. The Belvedere was Britain's only tandem rotor helicopter to enter production, and one of the few not built by Boeing or Piasecki.
« Last Edit: September 20, 2020, 11:55:00 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #609 on: Yesterday at 04:22:15 PM »
Central Centaur IIA

The Central Centaur IIA, or Central C.F.2a, was a civil six-passenger pleasure flight biplane aircraft produced by Central Aircraft Company Limited of London.

Designated the Centaur IIB the first aircraft, registered G-EAHR, first flew during July 1919.The fuselage had an open cockpit for the two crew and six passengers. A second example, registered G-EAPC, was built. It had the same designation Centaur IIB but had an enclosed cabin for seven passengers. The second aircraft first flew in May 1920.The aircraft were powered by a pair of Beardmore 160 hp 6-cyl. in-line piston engines, which gave a max speed of 90 mph, and a cruise of 75mph.

The second aircraft was tested by the Air Ministry for the 1920 Commercial Aeroplane Competition.It was described at the time as outdated and low-powered, another problem was that loaded with the fuel required for the three and half-hour test flight meant it was unable to carry passengers or pilots. The prototype was destroyed in an accident at Northolt Aerodrome in July 1919,shortly after the competition. The second aircraft crashed on the 25 September 1920 at Hayes, Middlesex, with a loss of six lives. No further aircraft were built.
« Last Edit: Yesterday at 04:24:43 PM by Angry Turnip »

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Re: The slightly less well known
« Reply #610 on: Yesterday at 04:34:53 PM »
Chilton D.W.1

The Chilton D.W.1 is a light sporting monoplane designed and built in the late 1930s by Chilton Aircraft.

The Chilton D.W.1 was designed in early 1937 by two ex de Havilland Technical School students who formed Chilton Aircraft Limited for the purpose. The aircraft was intended to be cheap to build and operate, yet have an exceptional performance on low power. This was derived from its aerodynamically clean design with an all-wood airframe with plywood skin. Only the control surfaces and the trailing edge of the wing behind the rear spar were fabric covered.

The first three aircraft were powered by the 32 h.p. Carden-Ford.Initial flight trials with the prototype G-AESZ were made at Witney airfield in April 1937,revealing that some minor modifications were needed to the engine and propeller. The first public appearance was made at Southend Airport on 4 September 1937. The second and third aircraft were completed and sold in 1938. The final aircraft was completed in July 1939 and was powered by the new French-built 44 h.p. Train 4T four-cylinder inverted inline air-cooled engine. This aircraft (G-AFSV) was designated the D.W.1A, took part in the Folkestone Aero Trophy Race at Lympne on 5 August 1939, winning at an average speed of 126 mph.

Two prewar Chiltons survived in airworthy condition in 2005 and the other two were restoration projects around that date.The British CAA register in May 2011 showed 3 aircraft with permits to fly. The first of these has the Carden-Ford engine and the others are powered by Walter Mikrons. In May 2020, of those 3 aircraft, only G-AFGI has a permit. However, both G-JUJU and G-DWCB are currently in permit as airworthy as well.
« Last Edit: Yesterday at 04:35:48 PM by Angry Turnip »